Works Cited

Agaibi, C. E., & Wilson, J. P. (2005). Trauma, PTSD, and resilience a review of the literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse6(3), 195-216.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition: (DSM-5) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

Anderson, K. M. (2006). Surviving incest: The art of resistance. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 87(3), 409-416.

Anderson, K. M., & Hiersteiner, C. (2008). Recovering from childhood sexual abuse: Is a “storybook ending” possible?. The American Journal of Family Therapy36(5), 413-424.

Bennice, J. A., Resick, P. A., Mechanic, M., & Astin, M. (2003). The relative effects of intimate partner physical and sexual violence on post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology. Violence and victims18(1), 87-94.

Binder, E. B., Bradley, R. G., Liu, W., Epstein, M. P., Deveau, T. C., Mercer, K. B., … & Schwartz, A. C. (2008). Association of FKBP5 polymorphisms and childhood abuse with risk of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adults. Jama299(11), 1291-1305.

Bogar, C. B., & Hulse‐Killacky, D. (2006). Resiliency determinants and resiliency processes among female adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Counseling & Development84(3), 318-327.

Bolstad, B. R., & Zinbarg, R. E. (1997). Sexual victimization, generalized perception of control, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. Journal of anxiety disorders11(5), 523-540.

Bownes, I. T., O’Gorman, E. C., & Sayers, A. (1991). Assault characteristics and posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims. ActaPsychiatricaScandinavica83(1), 27-30.

Bradley, R., Greene, J., Russ, E., Dutra, L., & Westen, D. (2005). A multidimensional metaanalysis of psychotherapy for PTSD. [Review]. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 214-227.

Brand, B. L., & Alexander, P. C. (2003). Coping with incest: The relationship between recollections of childhood coping and adult functioning in female survivors of incest. Journal of traumatic stress16(3), 285-293.

Brewin, C. R. (2011). The nature and significance of memory disturbance in posttraumatic stress disorder. Annual review of clinical psychology7, 203-227.

Carson, D. K., Council, J. R., & Vole, M. A. (1989). Temperament as a predictor of psychological adjustment in female adult incest victims. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45(2), 330- 335.

Chivers-Wilson, K. A. (2006). Sexual assault and posttraumatic stress disorder: A review of the biological, psychological and sociological factors and treatments. Mcgill journal of medicine9(2), 111.

Dass-Brailsford, P. (2005). Exploring resiliency: academic achievement among disadvantaged black youth in South Africa:’general’section. South African Journal of Psychology35(3), 574-591.

Frazier, P. A. (2003). Perceived control and distress following sexual assault: a longitudinal test of a new model. Journal of personality and social psychology84(6), 1257.

Hughes, V. (2012). The roots of resilience. Nature490(7419), 165.

Lefley, H. P., Scott, C. S., Liabre, M., & Hicks, D. (1993). Cultural Beliefs About Rape and Victims’ Response in Three Ethnic Groups. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry63(4), 623-632.

Lira, L. R., Koss, M. P., & Russo, N. F. (1999). Mexican American women’s definitions of rape and sexual abuse. Hispanic journal of behavioral sciences21(3), 236-265.

Lorentzen, E., Nilsen, H., & Traeen, B. (2008). Will it never end? The narratives of incest victims on the termination of sexual abuse. Journal of sex research45(2), 164-174.

McCauley, J., Kern, D. E., Kolodner, K., Dill, L., Schroeder, A. F., DeChant, H. K., … & Bass, E. B. (1997). Clinical characteristics of women with a history of childhood abuse: unhealed wounds. Jama277(17), 1362-1368.

National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK. (2005). Post-traumatic stress disorder: The management of PTSD in adults and children in primary and secondary care. Gaskell.

Ozer, E. J., Best, S. R., Lipsey, T. L., & Weiss, D. S. (2003). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin129(1), 52.

Radan, A. (2007). Exposure to violence and expressions of resilience in Central American women survivors of war. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma14(1-2), 147-164.

Resnick, H. S., Kilpatrick, D. G., Dansky, B. S., Saunders, B. E., & Best, C. L. (1993). Prevalence of civilian trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in a representative national sample of women. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology61(6), 984.

Rothbaum, B. O., Foa, E. B., Riggs, D. S., Murdock, T., & Walsh, W. (1992). A prospective examination of post-traumatic stress disorder in rape victims. Journal of Traumatic stress5(3), 455-475.

Sarkar, N. N., Sarkar, R. (2005) Sexual assault on woman: Its impact on her life and living in society. Sexual & Relationship Therapy, 20 (4), 407-419 Database: Academic Search Premier

Seal, K.H., Bertenhal, D., Miner, C., Sen, S., & Marmar, C. (2007).  Bringing the war back home.  Mental health disorders among 103788 US veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan seen at Department of Veterans Affairs Facilities.  Archives of Internal medicine, 167, 476 – 482.

Silva, R. R., Alpert, M., Munoz, D. M., Singh, S., Matzner, F., & Dummit, S. (2000). Stress and vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry157(8), 1229-1235.

Stein, Murray B., John R. Walker, and David R. Forde. “Gender differences in susceptibility to posttraumatic stress disorder.” Behaviour research and therapy 38.6 (2000): 619-628.

Stein, M. B., Jang, K. L., Taylor, S., Vernon, P. A., & Livesley, W. J. (2002). Genetic and environmental influences on trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: a twin study. American Journal of Psychiatry159(10), 1675-1681.

Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1996). The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of traumatic stress9(3), 455-471.

Ullman, S. E., & Filipas, H. H. (2001). Predictors of PTSD symptom severity and social reactions in sexual assault victims. Journal of traumatic stress14(2), 369-389.

Valentine, L., & Feinauer, L. L. (1993). Resilience factors associated with female survivors of childhood sexual abuse. American Journal of Family Therapy21(3), 216-224.

Vera, Hazvinei A., “Resilience theory and trauma theory applied to adult women incest survivors” (2013). Theses, Dissertations, and Projects. Paper 601.

Wilkes, G. (2002). Introduction: A second generation of resilience research. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 229– 232.

Yehuda, Hoge, MacFarlane, Vermetten, Lanius, Nievergelt, Hobfoll, Koenen, Neylan & Hyman, 2015

Yuan, N. P., Koss, M. P., & Stone, M. (2006). The psychological consequences of sexual trauma. Retrieved September27, 2007.

Posted by:repsychl

19 replies on “Why do Some Experience PTSD After Sexual Trauma, While Others do Not?

    1. Your comment is much appreciated! I agree it is a difficult topic, unfortunately little spoken about or researched due to stigma. Spreading the word and talking more openly can hopefully help break down that stigma and help those suffering.

      Liked by 1 person

    1. Are you familiar with EMDR? Some medications can also help, and I’ve found trauma support groups to be very helpful as well as individual counseling. Some find CBT/DBT helpful. There are also little tricks people use to distract themselves from flashbacks. Feel free to message me if you have any questions. I’m not a therapist, but I’ve been in therapy for a long time and I’ve amassed quite a bit of information.!

      Liked by 2 people

  1. “Lack of social support is highlighted as the most important risk factor in PTSD.” This really resonates with me. When your abuser is a parent(s) it’s difficult to ever get the support needed. Great post.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s